A spatial rip projector weaponizes the expansion of space. It can shear apart any solid material, but its range is extremely limited. The anomalies it creates persist for some time and present a danger to ships that pass through them, making it possible to use the projector to create a minefield of sorts. It can also be used as a defense against weapons fire, but its low firing rate limits its effectiveness.
The singularity beam is a gravity weapon, subjecting the target to extreme hull stress and, if the target is small or weak enough, outright compresses it into a ball. It requires a long strand of emitters, so a ship mounting it either needs to be extremely lengthy or be able to extend a reel of emitters behind it. The beam can only be fired in a straight line from the weapon's aperture, so the ship will need to turn itself to face the target.
The transmuter warhead causes most elements within its effect radius to transform into different ones, usually causing a radical deformation of hull structures and the disabling of ship systems. The transformation effect is difficult to control, so there's no telling exactly what elements are going to come out, regardless of the target hit.
The stellar pulse is a weapon designed for use by an orbital station of great size, planted within a certain distance of a star. When activated, it draws upon the star's energy to create a gigantic gravity lens, focusing the emissions of one face of the star into a comparative pinpoint. Though its firing rate is abysmal, it generally only needs to be used once.