In other words, a term interest rate agreement (FRA) is a tailor-made, non-payment financial futures contract on short-term deposits. An FRA transaction is a contract between two parties for the exchange of payments on a deposit, the so-called nominal amount, which must be determined on the basis of a short-term interest rate called the reference rate, over a period predetermined at a future date. Fra transactions are recorded as hedges against changes in interest rates. The buyer of the contract blocks the interest rate to guard against a rise in interest rates, while the seller protects against a possible fall in interest rates. At maturity, no money exchanges hands; on the contrary, the difference between the contractual interest rate and the market price is exchanged. The buyer of the contract is paid if the published reference rate is higher than the contractually agreed fixed rate and the buyer pays to the seller if the published reference rate is lower than the contractually agreed fixed rate. A company that wants to hedge against a possible rise in interest rates would buy FRAs, while a company that seeks to hedge interest rates against a possible drop in interest rates would sell FRAs. Ndisplaystyle N} being the fictitious rate of the contract, R {displaystyle R} the fixed interest rate, r {displaystyle r} the published IBOR fixing rate and d {displaystyle d} the decimalized dawn on which the start and end dates of the IBOR rate extend. For USD and EUR, an ACT/360 convention follows and the GBP is followed by an ACT/365 convention. Overnight index swaps are used as a hedge to control interest rate risk and liquidity. The durations of OISs range from 1 week to 2 years or more, with spreads generally between 1.5 and 5 basis points. At maturity, the parties determine the net payment by calculating the difference between the accrued interest on the fixed rate and the geometric mean of the index`s variable rate on the notional swap capital.

Since there is no exchange of capital and only the net difference in interest rates is paid at maturity, ISOs have a low credit risk.. . .