That's a pretty dense subject but... Yeah, I can give you a rougher rundown. They're not exactly my fluff, per se. Galt was really adamant that we avoid doing this "codex style," but it was just more efficient to break the factions down into slices and then delegate them out with him and Rome as the editors.
Truth of it is, I only know about the Machines (who were partly my idea to begin with, whoo!) and some rough details about some of the aliens.
There's some stuff you need to know, though, pretty simple setting details. Basically, in the ~200 odd years since the colonies were sent off world, and the nuclear war happened, Earth's colonies actually multiplied and grew. The closest, Chiron, acted as the unifying force in Earth's absence, thanks to its large population and having been the only one to receive third-stage support from Earth before the collapse. Even without the resources to send vessels between each other, research and information could be shared, and these formed the currency of the colonies as they struggled to regain starflight.
There were 31 original colonies. Of these, only 2 had more than 10,000 human beings present. Chiron had nearly a million, as it was the closest and religious pilgrims had flocked there, and Oberon, which had about 100,000, about enough to sustain its own population.
Well, these colonies went about their merry way. None of their environments were fully suited for human life, but none were so hostile that they required outside support. This was, of course, by design.
Con't, (don't worry I'll get to dem robots right quick.)